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July 26, 2010 | by  | in Features |
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Te Oranga o te Reo, te Oranga o te Iwi

He tau anō, he Wiki anō, he mōheni anō. Ahakoa ngā tau maha kua pahure mai, ko te hiringa nui e tutū tonu ana ki ngā ngākau o te iwi Māori ko te reo. Tēnā koe e Te Wiki o te Reo Māori, te toitoi i te kaupapa o tēnei mōheni, te taki i tēnei paku maramara tuhinga. Ahakoa he tika te whakaaro, me kōrero Māori i ngā wā katoa, i ngā wāhi katoa, kāore tonu e pēnei te āhua. Nā reira kei te pehea kē? He aha te tino pānga hoki ki a tātou te iwi Māori? Tēnā, me tirohia tātou.

Nō ngā tau 1970, i tīmata te taki o tēnei mea te waka whakaora i te reo Māori i runga anō i te waimehatanga o ngā puna reo huri noa i te motu. Ko te pōkaikaha tērā o te minenga, ka mate te reo, ka parea tēnei taonga ki rahaki, ngaro noa. Ka putaputa mai ngā kaupapa whakaora reo mai i ngā whāruarua o te motu pēnei i te kākano o te Kōhanga Reo, te pihinga o te Kura Kaupapa Māori, te mahuri o te Wharekura, te kōhuretanga o te Whare Wānanga hoki. Āra anō ko Te Ātaarangi e whakatō ana i te kākano o te reo ki ērā o ngā mātua, ngā pahake kāore i tipu ake i te reo. Whai muri ake ko ngā kaupapa whakaora i te mita o te reo, arā, ko te Kāpunipuni Reo tērā mo ngā uri o Taranaki, ko te kaupapa Kotahi Mano Kāika tērā mō ngā uri o Ngāi Tahu, anō hoki, ko tētahi pekanga o te tino karamatamata o te reo tērā e poipoia nei e te Panekiretanga o te Reo. He mea whakaora katoa ēnei kaupapa i te reo Māori i waenganui i a tātou mā, kōhungahunga mai, pakeke mai, kaumātua mai. Otiia, he aha te pānga o te reo ki te oranga o te iwi?

Kia para i te huarahi o taku kōrero nei, tuatahi ko te whakamārama poto mō tēnei mea te ‘reo-ā-iwi’ me tōna ‘mita’.

“Tōku reo ka tuku, tōku mouri ka ora.”

He reo e mōhio whānuitia ā-motu nei te reo Māori nā te mea he reo taketake o Aotearoa, heoi, he wāhanga anō tō te reo Māori, arā, ko ngā pekanga o ngā reo-ā-iwi. Ko te rerekētanga o te ia, o te piki me te heke o te reo, o ngā kīwaha, whakataukī, whakatauāki o ia iwi hei whakaputa i ōna ake kōrero. Hei tauira, ki tā te tuhinga Ngā Reo ā-Iwi a Te Wharehuia Milroy ki te pukapuka Te Kōhure, ka mea mai ia:

Ki te haere koe ki roto o te rohe o Taranaki me ōna hapū katoa, hei konā anō koe rongo ai i ngā rerekētanga, arā, i ētahi atu rohe kua rongo koe i te kupu ‘kei’ e whakamahia ana. Ki roto o Mātaatua, o Te Arawa, o Te Tai Rāwhiti ka rongo koe e whakamahia ana ‘kai’. Kei roto i ētahi o ngā hapū o Taranaki me Whanga-nui e pērā ana anō tā rātau whakamahi i tērā kupu, i te ‘kei’. He ‘kai’ kē, he ‘hai’ rānei mō te ‘hei’ (1996:53).

He mita ake anō kei ētahi reo-ā-iwi. Hei tauira ake, ki tā te mita o te Tai Tokerau, ka makere mai te ‘w’ i te pū ‘wh’ kia noho hei ‘hakarongo’ te kupu e mōhio whānuitia e te nuinga ko te ‘whakarongo’. Anō nei, ko Ngāi Tūhoe mā, kua kore mai te ‘g’ mai i te pū ‘ng’ kia noho mai ko te ‘whakarono’. Tau atu ki Te Waipounamu, ko tā rātou he ‘k’ kē mō te pū ‘ng’ kia ‘whakaroko’ te kupu ‘whakarongo’ nei. Ā, ki tā te Tai Hauāuru ka warea ake te pū ‘h’ kia ‘wakarongo’ kē te kupu.

He tauira noa iho ēnei hei whakaatu i te rerekētanga matua o ia mita, ā, kia noho ko ēnei tauira e whakaatu ana i te rerekētanga o ia reo-ā-iwi, o ia mita, kia mārama pai ai te tangata he kokinga anō tō te reo Māori.

I runga i aua whakaaro, ka tahuri ake anō ki te reo me te mita o te Tai Hauāuru hei whakatauira te tino ngako o te kaupapa nei.

Te Kāpunipuni Reo o Taranaki

E ai ki te paetukutuku o Te Reo o Taranaki, ko te aronga matua o te Kāpunipuni Reo o Taranaki he whakaako, he wānanga i ngā āhuatanga katoa o te reo me te mita o Taranaki. Arā, ko te ōrokohanga o te kaupapa whakaora i te reo o Taranaki i puta tuatahi mai te taki o ngā kaupapa whakaora i te reo Māori o ngā rau tau 1980. Ko ngā nawe i rangona ai e te iwi te take i tū mai te rōpū kaporeihana o Te Reo o Taranaki, nā tēnei i puta te ihu o te waka whakaora reo i te tau 1986 hei kawe ake i ngā wawata o rātou mā ngā mata reherehe mo ngā uri whakaheke.

E ai ki te pūataata rorohiko mō te rautaki o Te Reo o Taranaki, nō te tau 1991 ka huakina ngā tatau o Te Kōhanga Reo o Te Kōpae Tamariki ki Ngāmotu. Ka kotahi tau, ko ngā kuaha o Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Pihipihinga Kākano Mai Rangiātea i tūwhera mai. Makere mai te whitu tau, ko te Wharekura i āpiti atu ki te kura. Anō hoki, ko Te Ātaarangi tonu e whakaako ana i te reo i Taranaki ki te marea, ēngari, ko te Kāpunipuni Reo i puta hei whakakīkī i te whārua mō ērā tokoiti matatau kē ana ki te reo.

Ko ngā tūmomo āhuatanga e whakaakona, e whakamahia ki ngā wānanga o te Kāpunipuni ko ngā karakia ōmua, ngā karakia hou, te whaikōrero, te karanga hoki, ngā waiata ōmua, ngā waiata hou, te kōrero paki, te pao maioha, me te taukumekume. Ko ēnei āhuatanga katoa he whai i ngā tikanga o Taranaki, o Ngā Rauru hoki. Ka tū ngā wānanga nei ki ngā marae huri noa i te rohe, ā, mā te hunga kua tangata whenua mai i aua marae e taki i ngā kōrero o ia wānanga.

Ko te mea nui o te Kāpunipuni, ko ngā kōrero katoa e hāngai tōtika ana ki ngā uri o ngā waka o Aotea, Tokomaru me Kurahaupō; ki ngā kōrero me ngā hītori o ngā iwi whānui o Taranaki. I a te tauira o te Kāpunipuni e wānanga ana i tōna mita ake, ko ia hoki e mau pūmau ana ki tōna ake tuakiri, arā, ko te reo tērā e mau kaha ana ki te tuakiri o te tangata. Ki tā te tohunga wetereo, Joshua Fishman, ko te takakino o te reo, he takakino o te tuakiri, arā, mā te oranga o tētahi te oranga o tērā atu hoki, ka mate te reo, ka whakamomori nei tātou i a tātou anō. Ki te ora te tuakiri o ia iwi, me ora anō tōna ake reo, mita hoki.

Nō reira, kei te ora tonu te reo?

Ka whānui taku titiro ki te oranga o te reo Māori. I taku tirohanga tuatahi ki tēnei urupounamu ka tere taku whakapae, āe, kei te ora tonu. I runga anō i te maha o ngā kaupapa whakaora reo e karapotia nei e te motu ināianei, i runga anō hoki i te mea e āhei ana ahau me te nui o ōku whānau ki te kōrero i te reo, te nui o ōku hoa hoki me ērā atu tāngata kei te hāpori, kei ngā pouaka whakaata, kei ngā reo irirangi, kei te ipurangi, kei hea kē mai e taea ai te kōrero, te rongo, te kite hoki i te reo e whakamahi ana – i runga anō i ērā whakatau āku, ka tika, kei te ora pai te reo. Ēngari anō, ki te tahuri ake ki ngā tatauranga ō mua, e whakaatu ana ēnei nama i tētahi āhuatanga kē.

E ai ki ngā kōrero o te pae tukutuku o Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, i te tau 1913, āhua 92% te nui o ngā tamariki Māori e taea te kōrero i te reo Māori. Tau atu ki te 1973-78 o ngā tau, āhua 18-20% noa iho te maha o te tangata, ko te nuinga hoki he kaumātua. I te 1985 ka heke anō ki te 12%, otiia, e kore e mutu ki reira te hekenga o te tatauranga. Nō te tau 2006, ka puta mai anō ngā tatauranga mō te reo, i tēnei wā e kī ana e 4% noa iho te maha o te tangata ki Aotearoa e taea te kōrero i te reo Māori. Hei tāpiri ki tērā, mai ngā Māori katoa o Aotearoa – arā he 14% noa iho o te huinga tāngata katoa ki Aotearoa nei – 24% noa iho o aua Māori ka taea te kōrero Māori. Ki te whakataurite tērā ki te paihēneti o te maha o ngā tangata e taea te kōrero i te reo Pākehā, arā, e 95% e taea, tēnā, pehea tērā atu 5% paihēneti? Kāore e kore ko te nuinga – inā kāore i te katoa – he tangata nō whenua kē me tō rātou ake reo rerekē! Kāore kau he tangata e taea te kī e tūturu ana ko te reo Māori tōna reo noa iho. Kia whakaritea anō tātou i te rahi o te 24% o ngā tangata Māori; ko te nui o te tangata Māori e taea te kōrero i te reo Māori he pēnei te rite o te nui o te tangata noho ana ki tētahi rohe o Tamaki-makaurau i te tau 2006.

Ko ēnei momo tatauranga e whakaatu ana i te tino oranga o te reo. He reo rehurehu noa iho i te tirohanga mārō nei. Ka tata hemo te reo i te ngoikore o te nuinga me te tokoiti o te hunga matatau ki te kōrero, ngākaunui ana hoki ki te reo. Nō reira ka tika te ui atu, ‘kei te ora tonu te reo Māori?’

“He reo e kōrerotia ana, he reo ka ora.”

Otiia, ahakoa ngā tatauranga nei, kia mōhio mai koutou, ka mau tonu au ki te whakaaro, āe, kei te ora tonu te reo Māori. E kore rawa au e whakapae kua mate katoa te reo Māori tae noa ki te wā kua hemo katoa tātou e kawe i te hā, i te mura, i te ahi o te reo. Ēngari anō, he tika te whakatau, e kore te reo e ora pēnei nā i ngā rā ō mua, arā, te kaha rangona ki ngā wāhi katoa, te maringi noa mai ngā korokoro, waha, ngutu maha, te tika hoki o te reo. E kao. He ora pēnei i tētahi tangata e mau tonu ana ki tētahi tūpari, ā, ki te taka ia, ka hemo. Kei te kapokapo haere tātou i ngā kōhatu, i ngā paruparu, i te pātītī kia ora tātou i te pari rā. Kei te pēnā te ora o te reo ināianei, ko te whiu noa iho o ngā kupu hangahanga, ko te kaha mikirapu o ngā rerenga kōrero, o ngā kupu, te whakatū kaupapa whakaora reo maha, aha atu, aha atu mo te tūpono ka ora mai te reo i te muia o te reo, i te pārara o te hora ki te whenua. Ko te whakaaro nei kei te kōrerohia te reo, kei te kite atu, ko te tūpono kei te ora. Heoi, ko te reo Māori tērā e rere ana? Anei te tino ngako o ēnei kōrero. Ka mate tātou i te hurihanga o tēnei ao me ōna pānga maha ki a tātou, ki ngā iwi Māori o te motu, ki te reo hoki.

Maringanui he kaupapa whakaora reo pēnei i Te Kāpunipuni Reo. I runga i te whakaaro ko te ako, ko te whakaako hoki o te reo Māori he mahi paratī i te puna reo, he mea tīmatatanga noa iho hei eke ki te taumata kōrero. Ki te kōkirihia tonutia te kaupapa whakaora reo, hei māunu ake te oranga o te iwi hoki, me ruku hōhonu nei i ngā hōpuapua o te mita o te reo hei wānanga, hei wetewete i ngā kōrero a rātou mā. Kei reira kē te pūmautanga o te reo me ōna tikanga. Kia muramura mai te ahi kā ki roto ki tēnā, ki tēnā, pērā ki ngā pou o te reo Māori, te hunga kua roa nei e ‘tutungia te hātete’ o te reo, arā, kia Tīmoti Karetu mā, kia Te Wharehuia Milroy, kia Huirangi Waikerepuru, kia Tipene O’Reagan hoki. Kua riro mā rātou e mau i te ahi kā roa mo tātou kua mauheretia ki te reo paraoa o tēnei ao hurihuri, ā, ko te mura o te hā kei tēnā, kei tēnā o tātou e kawe tonu i te kaupapa. Ka tika kia para tonu tātou i tēnei ara o te reo kia tutungia tēnei mura hei ahi-kā-roa mo ērā e takahi ana i tēnei ara tāpokopoko.

Photo credit: Remon Rijper

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