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Jamie
July 10, 2016 | by  | in Features |
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Me kōrero Māori te tangata e kīia ai he Māori

Hoki atu, hoki atu ka whakaaturia mai te noho tīrara a te Māori ki ngā take o te wā. Ka hia tau nei i tautohe ai te iwi Māori ki te hanga o te tuakiri Māori, otirā, ki ngā āhuatanga e uru atu ai te tangata ki te ahurea nei. Me pēhea te tangata e Māori ai? Ka mahi i ngā mahi ahurea? He kōrero Māori? He tangata whai whakapapa Māori? Uaua ana te tautuhia o te ngako o te Māori. Ko tāku noa nei he tirotiro ki ara kē e mārama ai te tuakiri o te Māori, he tuitui hoki i ngā whakaaro ā-mohoa nei e pā ana ki te noho Māori i Aotearoa. 

 

Tuakiri: He Tirohanga

Hei tīmatanga, kia whakaarohia e tātou ētehi anga mātauranga e rua hei whakamārama i te tuakiri o te tangata: ko tētehi ki te tirohanga Pākehā, he tirohanga tikanga ā-iwi; ko tētehi ki tā te pā hinengaro Māori

Ki tā Giddens (1991: 20), he kaimātai ahurea rongonui, ka huri te wā, ka huri te ao, ka huri te tuakiri. Mā te horopaki o te wā e pērā ai te tuakiri. Hei tāna, e whā ngā rengarenga mātua o te tāhuhu kōrero tāngata; kei ia wā he tukanga tuakiri kē atu. Ko ēnei rengarenga, ko te rengarenga taketake, te rengarenga nō tata nei, te rengarenga nō muri atu, me te rengarenga rangiwhāwhā (1991:21). Ko te rengarenga o nāianei, ko te rengarenga rangiwhāwhā, he wā e hanumi ai ngā tikanga o iwi kē. Heoi, ka noho tonu pea te Māori i rengarenga taketake; he horopaki taketake me kī. Ki a Giddens, ko te āhuatanga matua o ngā tuakiri nō te rengarenga taketake, ka tukua mai te tuakiri i tētehi reanga ake ki tētehi reanga iho, arā, ka tūmau tonu te momo o te tangata, he herenga tuakiri mai i onamata ki anamata.

Kia tika te ahunga o te tohe, ka whakaarohia me pēhea e Māori ai te tangata, ki tō te Māori tirohanga. I whakaterea e Tā Hirini Mead i roto i t`ana pukapuka rongonui Tikanga Māori he anga whakamātau e kitea ai te iho o te tuakiri Māori i te tangata. E whā ngā āhuatanga i whakaaturia e Tā Mead hei tohu i te Māoritanga o te Māori, ko te ira tangata-ira atua, he whakapapa, he tūrangawaewae, me ngā pūmanawa. Kei raro iho nei whakamāramahia ai ēnei matū.

Āhuatanga Tuakiri Tautuhinga
Ira Tangata-Ira Atua Me maumahara tonu he āhuatanga atua ō ia tangata, i heke tātou i te whare atua. Nā ō tūpuna tō mana, tō pūtea, tō mātauranga, aha atu, aha atu. Nā rātou tō tūāhuatanga i tēnei ao i homai.
Whakapapa Mā te whakapapa Māori e uru atu ai te tangata ki ngā horopaki Māori, he wāhi tōna i ōna iwi, ōna hapū, ōna marae.
Tūrangawaewae He hononga tō te tangata ki te whenua, ki te wāhi e noho rā ia. He whiringa o ngā āria kikokore ki te ao kiko nei.
Pūmanawa Mā te kāwai heke tukua ai ngā pūmanawa. He whakatinanatanga te tangata o ōna tūpuna.

                                                 (Mead, 2003: 42-44;  he kauwhata whakarite e au).

Mārakerake ana te tiro, he whakapapa te āhuatanga mātua kei ia matū tuakiri a Mead. He whakaaro o te aro tonutanga a te tangata ki mua, hīkoi ana ki muri.  Ki taku arohaenga o ēnei anga, he āhuatanga ōrite tēnei ki ngā putanga e rua – ka whakaae tonu a Giddens rāua ko Mead, ki tā te Māori (ki tā ngā iwi o te rengarenga taketake rānei) he hononga tō te tuakiri ki onamata, he hononga o nāianei ki raurangi atu. Whakaarohia te kīrehu Māori nei, ‘he momo.’ Kei roto nei te pā hinengaro o te Māori, he āhuatanga i tukua iho i ō tūpuna kia rite tonu ki a rātou. “Pai tō waiata, e Bob. He momo a tō whaea!” Ka kitea te tuku ihotanga o te pūmanawa (arā, te waiata) mai i te reanga ake (te whaea) ki te reanga iho (Bob). Te āhua nei, ka tukua iho te pūmanawa mai i reanga ake rawa, tae noa ki ngā atua Māori. Nā, i te mea kua tukua tēnei pūmanawa, he tohu ka whai whakapapa te tangata, arā, ka whai hononga ki tāukiuki noa atu. Heoi, ka hangai tonu ēnei whakaaro ki nāianei?

 

Te Tuakiri o Nāianei:

I whakairia kētia te anga tuakiri a Mead hei whakaarotanga. Ko te ngako o tāna, me whai whakapapa Māori kia kīia ai he Māori, he hononga anō tō te tangata ki tōna whakapapa, ki tōna whenua, ki te wāhi i tupu ai ia. Heoi, kua maha ngā putanga Māori o nāianei e kōrero ana ki te reo me tōna hiranga ki te tuakiri Māori, he āhuatanga kāore i kōrerohia e Tā Mead hei tohu i te Māoritanga o te Māori. Nā Te Paepae Motuhake tētehi pūrongo i tuari ki te motu kia arotakengia te rautaki reo Māori me te rāngai reo Māori, ko tō rātou aronga te uaratanga o te reo me ngā hua i puta. Ki tā Te Paepae Motuhake kitenga, he uaratanga nui tō te reo, ko te tūāpapa o te tuakiri Māori: “Ko te reo Māori te mauri o te mana Māori” (Te Puni Kōkiri, 2011: 62). Ka hia nei tau i pupuri ai te Māori ki tēnā whakaaro,  te rongomaiwhiti rawa atu o te reo. Nā konei i puta te pōhēhē a te marea me whai reo Māori e kīia ai he Māori.

Heoi anō, ahakoa kāore te reo Māori e whakamāori i te tangata, me whakaae tonu he wāhi tō te reo i ngā kōrero tuakiri. Ki tā Hinton, “ko te reo te poutokomanawa o te ahurea” (Hinton, 2001: 9 – nāku nei i whakamāori). Mā te reo te tangata e mōhio pai ai ki tōna ao, ki tōna wāhi, ki ngā tikanga huhua i whiria e te hunga. Mā te reo e wheako ai te tangata ki tōna ao. Me pēhea e kore ai e kōrerohia hei iho tuakiri?

I whakarewaina e Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga tētehi kaupapa rangahau, ko ‘He Iho Reo’ te ingoa. Ko te whāinga o te kaupapa, he whakamāhuki i ngā tukanga me ngā pānga o te tukua ihotanga o te reo kāore i te āta kitea. I whakapuaki ngā kaiuru Māori i tō rātou ake whakapono kaha rā ko te reo Māori te iho o te tuakiri Māori (Ruckstuhl, 2014: 128). Ahakoa tā Mead tohe mā te whakapapa me ōna toronga atu e whai wāhi atu ai te tangata ki te tuakiri Māori, ka whakaaro tonu kē ēnei kaiuru me mātua whai reo Māori kia Māori tonu te iwi. Hei āpiti atu ki ēnei whakapono, ki au nei he urupare whai tikanga anō ko te whakaaenga a kaiuru Pākehā ki taua huatau. Kei te whakaaro e kitea ngā taukaea ahurea e here ai i a whakaaro, i a pohewa, i a tūmanako ki a pāpori; he whakaaturanga o te tauira Māori kei te ihomatua o te marea i Aotearoa nei, arā, me kōrero Māori kia Māori,  – he Māori ‘tūturu’ nei.  

Heoi anō, nō nāianei puta ai ētehi pūtanga wetereo e kōrero ana ki te āria o ngā reo taonga. Kia whakarāpopotohia noatia, ko te reo taonga  he reo kua whai mana i tētehi hāpori, nō reira ko te “tūāpapa o te tuakiri”, āra, he hono o te tangata ki tētehi rangapū, ko tā te reo he tohu i taua āhuatanga (Ruckstuhl, 2014: 135 – nāku nei i whakamāori). Ki ngā tāngata kua tāmia ō rātou reo taonga, ko te ako i taua reo he huanui hei uru atu i taua tuakiri ā-rangapū/tuakiri ā-mātāwaka i pēhitia – he whakaaro rangatira.

Engari ia, ko tōku e whakaaro nei, me hīkoi ara kē tātou kia tautuhia te tuakiri Māori. He ara whakataratara tēnei hei whāinga, he kaupare atu pea i ētehi mema kia kore ai e uru atu ki tō rātou ake ahurea. Mōku ake anō, tā te mea ko te reo te matū o te tuakiri Māori (ki ētehi), ka tika hoki kia whakahuatia ka matatau ake te tangata, ka Māori ake hoki? Ko Te Panekiretanga o te Reo Māori tētehi whakanōhanga i puta i a au e whakaaro ana ki te huatau nei. Kāore e kore, ko ēnei mātanga reo he Māori rawa te whakaaro, he Māori rawa te reo, ā, he Māori rawa te whakapapa. Ko ēnei whata kai rangatira ngā tāngata kua whakairia ki te taumata o Tauira kia pai ai te whakaahua a te iwi Māori, “Anei he tangata Māori!” Heoi, ka Māori ake i ētehi? Ko wai ka tohu i taua whakawā? Kua wānangahia ēnei āhuatanga, auare ake (Durie, 1995: 462-464). Ko te āhua nei, mā te tangata ake tōna tuakiri e mau ai.

He Anga Tuakiri Anō?

Ahakoa ngā rerekē haeretanga o te tuakiri Māori me tōna hononga ki te reo, kāore anō kia whakarewaina he anga hou hei whakamārama i tēnei āhuatanga hou kua uru atu i ngā wānanga o te tuakiri Māori. Ko tāku nei he hanga anga kia aro pū atu te tangata ki te tūāhuatanga hou o te Māori i te motu nei.

Whakataukī ai te marea: “He kākano ahau i ruia mai i Rangiātea,” ā, tīraratia tonutia aua kākano ki ngā taipito katoa o te motu. Heoi, he kākano anō i ruia mai i Rangiātea? Ko tāku, ko te ahurea kē te kākano i ruia mai i Hawaiki-kai-manomano. Ka whakatōkia ki te tinaku haumako o Rito, nāwai rā, ka tupu mai te rākau ko Tuakiri. Ko tōna iho, ko whakapapa. Ko ōna pakiaka, ko tūrangawaewae. Ko ōna rau, ko hapori, ko whānau, ko huinga tangata. Ko ōna pūāwai, ko reo.

 

 

HE ANGA: TE RĀKAU TUAKIRI

ĀHUA RĀKAU ĀHUA TUAKIRI
Kākano Ko te ahurea Māori tēnei, nā konei tupu ai te pā hinengaro Māori.
Iho Me mātua whai whakapapa te tangata kia kīia ai he Māori. Koinei te tūāpapa o te tuakiri Māori.
Pakiaka He hononga te tangata ki tētehi wāhi, ki tētehi whenua. Nā te whenua i tupu ai te rākau, nā te hono whenua i tupu ai te tuakiri.
Rau Nā te tini o te rau te rākau i korowai. Ka muia hoki te tangata e te huinga tangata, e te pāpori, e te iwi/hapū/whānau. Mā te horopaki e noho nei te tangata e tini te tuakiri.
Pūāwai Ahakoa he hira tonu te reo ki te tuakiri Māori, ehara i te matū. He āpitihanga te reo ki te tuakiri Māori hei whakarākei i a ia, hei whakakaha i tōna hono ki tōna ake taha Māori. 

 

Whakakapi:

Ahakoa ngā tirohanga rerekē o te tuakiri/tuakiri Māori i matapakihia ki runga rā, ehara i te mea kua whakatauria ēnei hei herenga mō te iwi Māori katoa. Mā te tangata tōna ake tuakiri e whanake ai, e tīnia ai, e mau ai. Heoi, he pānga tonu ō te ahurea e noho nei te tangata, ngā horopaki e tārai ana i ōna wheako me ōna whakaaro. Ka whakaae hoki au ki tā Mead anga whakaaro mō te tuakiri Māori me tāna whakahua ko te whakapapa te iho o te rākau tuakiri. Kia whakaarohia hoki e tātou, he hira tō te reo ki te tuakiri Māori, engari ko tāna kē he whakapākari i te hononga o te tangata ki tōna ahurea ahakoa ngā nonoi a ētehi ko te reo te iho o te tuakiri Māori. Heoi, he ao hurihuri tonu tēnei – he huringa pea ki tua ka wero anō i ō tātou nei hinengaro, he huringa e tīni i ēnei whakaaro o te tuakiri. Hei reira kitea ai.

 

Rārangi Kupu:

Anga – model

Āria kikokore – intangible concept

Kaiuru – participant

Nonoi – insistence

Pā hinengaro Māori – Māori worldview

Rāngai – sector

Reo taonga – heritage languages

Tirohanga tikanga ā-iwi – anthropological perspective

Tuakiri ā-mātāwaka – ethnic identity

Tuakiri ā-rangapū – group identity

Rengarenga – epoch

Rengarenga  nō muri atu – post-modern epoch

Rengarenga  nō tata nei – modern epoch

Rengarenga taketake – traditional epoch

Rengarenga rangiwhāwhā – globalisation epoch

 

Rārangi Pukapuka:

Durie, M. H., 1995. Te hoe nuku roa framework: a Māori identity measure. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 104(4):461-470.

Giddens, A., 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Hinton, Leanne, 2001. Language revitalisation: an overview. In L. Hinton and K. Hale (eds), The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. San Diego: Academic Press, pp.3-18.

Mead, Hirini M., 2003. Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori Values. Wellington: Huia Publishers.

Ruckstuhl, Katharina, 2014. He iho reo. In R. Higgins, P. Rewi and V. Olsen-Reader (eds), The Value of the Māori Language. Te Hua o te Reo Māori. Wellington: Huia Publishers, pp.123-140.

Te Puni Kōkiri, 2011. Te Reo Mauriora: Te Arotakenga o te Rāngai Reo Māori me te Rautaki Reo Māori. Report on the Review of the Māori Language Strategy and Sector. Wellington: Te Puni Kōkiri.

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